Eric Schrock's Blog

Dual Core Opterons

November 21, 2004

So it’s no secret that AMD and Intel are in a mad sprint to the finish for dual-core x86 chips. The offical AMD roadmap, as well as public demos have all shown AMD well on track. The latest tidbits of information indicate Linux is up and running on these dual-core systems. Very cool.

Given our close relationship with AMD and the sensitive nature of hardware plans, I’ll refrain from saying what we may or may not have running in our labs. But Solaris has some great features that make it well-suited for these dual core chips. First of all, Solaris 10 has had support for both Chip Multi Threading (hyperthreading) and Chip Multi Processing (multi core) for about a year and half now. Solaris has also been NUMA-aware for much longer (with the current lgroups coming in mid-2001, or Solaris 9). I’m sure AMD has made these cores appear as two processesors for legacy purposes, but with a little cpuid tweaks, we’ll see them as sibling cores and get all the benefits inherent in Solaris 10 CMP.

Despite this, the NUMA system in Solaris is undergoing drastic change due to the Opteron memory architecture. While Solaris is NUMA-aware, it uses a simplistic memory heirarchy based on the physical architecture of Sun’s high end SPARC systems. We have the notion of a “locality group”, which represents the logical relationship of CPUs and memory. Currently, there are only two notions of locality – “near” and “far”. Solaris tries its best to keep logically connected memory and processes in the same locality group. On Opteron, things get a bit more complicated due to the integrated memory controller and HyperTransport layout. On 4-way machines the processors are laid out in a square, and on 8-way machines we have a ladder formation. Memory transfers must pass through neighboring memory controllers, so now memory could be “near”, “far”, or “farther”. We’re revamping the current lgroup system to support arbitrary memory heirachies, which should produce some nice performance gains on 4- and 8-way Opteron machines. Hopefully one of the NUMA folks will blog some more detailed information once this project integrates.

In conclusion: Opterons are cool, but dual-core Opterons are cooler. And Solaris will rip on both of them.

2 Responses

  1. [Trackback] Eric Schrock’s post about dual-core Opterons and the changes that have to be made to Solaris to deal with the Opteron’s “near, far, farther” NUMA layout (vs. what’s already in Solaris 9 to support Sun’s SPARC-based NUMA machines) got me thinking …

  2. Actually, I would say that Dual-Core Opterons are Hot, not Cool. Haven’t heard a good thermal envelope for public discussion – but I believe current 250’s run around 90ish Watts, and putting two cores in isn’t likely to make the power to go down

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